A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This is hundreds of years after the last Hurrian documents disappear, but Urartian is closer to Old Hurrian, rather than the later version of the language, so it is not a descendent of Hurrian. This stem-final vowel disappears when certain endings are attached to it, such as case nurrian that begin with a vowel, or the article suffix.

Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. Any text you add should be original, not hurriah from other sources.

The f of the genitive and dative endings merges with a preceding p or t giving pp and tt respectively, e. Hurrian has at its disposal several paradigms for hurgian relative clauses.

For for the possible superstrate language, see Mitanni-Aryan. Grzmmar clitics stand for unique words, but are attached to other words as though they were suffixes.

To express a possibility, the potential form must be used. In this process, the dependent modifiers of a noun share the noun’s case suffixes.

It remains, however, when a consonant-initial grsmmar is attached: The negative suffixes 7the ergative person suffixes 8and the ergative number suffixes 9 merge in ways which are not entirely predictable, so the person endings are usually listed uurrian separate singular and plural versions.

Unfortunately, our editorial grammar may not be grammr to accommodate all contributions. In the third person, when the suffix -wa occurs before the subject marker, it can be replaced by -maalso expressing the negative: In transitive verbs, the -o occurs grammarr in the present, while in the other tenses transitivity is instead indicated by the presence or absence of the aforementioned -t suffixes.

It is unknown whether this suffix was also found on transitive objects. They are much more diverse and frequent in the Mitanni letter than in Old Hurrian. In Hurrian, the function of the so-called ” article ” is not entirely clear, inasmuch as its use does not seem to resemble closely a typical definite article.

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There are also differences in morphology, some of which are mentioned in the course of the exposition below. Speisertried to equate Hurrians and ” Subarians “. Thank you for your feedback. Common terms and phrases 3rd person A-H Bil a-vowel agentive construction agentive suffix Akkad Akkadian Alalah allophones alphabetic texts ambiguity anaphoric appears assimilation Boghazkoi brother-my-by Chagar Bazar cited class marker consonant consonantal context dative dative suffix dental fricative double writing dowry E.

Hurrian language

In the Old Hurrian of Hattusha the ending of the third person singular was -m. While Hurrian could not combine multiple stems to form new stems, a large number of suffixes could be attached to existing stems to form new words.

The desiderative form is used to express an urgent request. Essive [7] [8] in, at The non-Mitanni letter varieties, while not entirely homogeneous, are commonly subsumed under the designation Old Hurrian. Contact our editors with your feedback. Igor Diakonoff cites the suffix as -ido-but also located it before the slot of the transitivity vowel -o- — an interpretation which is also justified by the place of the corresponding suffix in the related Urartian language.

Speiser element elides evidence examples express fact fasc force Foundation Lion Friedrich function genitive goal Goetze grammatical head noun Hittite Hurrian texts indicative mood interpretation intransitive jussive suffix labial fricative Laroche logical object Mane meaning Mittanni Letter morpheme names negative nihari Nippur nominal Nougayrol Nuzi Nuzu occurs Oen-iff-uO Old Akkadian orthography particle phoneme phrase plausibly position prepositional pronominal associatives pronominal suffix pronoun Purves relational suffixes represent root root-complement S-H Voc Semitic scribes semivowel sentence set of signs sibilant Speiser stative subject-action suggests syllabary syllabic tablet third person transitive verbs TuSratta Ugarit Ugaritic alphabetic Ugaritica Urartean voiced and voiceless word written z-signs zero-suffix form.

Vowels, just like consonants, can be either long or short.

These elements are not all obligatory, and in fact a noun can occur as a single root followed by nothing except zero-suffixes for case and number. Account Options Sign in. The following table gives an overview of the numeral system:. There may also be Hurrian loanwords among the languages of the Caucasusbut this cannot be verified, as there are no written records of Caucasian languages from the time of the Hurrians. The language is also strongly ergative. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

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Hurrian and the Hurrians The Hurrian language was written during a year period.

Some scholars, such as I. Most of them remain unedited as of Both forms are free interchangeable. Moreover, suffixes can be added to the grammmar stem that modify its hurrkan, including valency -changing morphemes such as -an n — causative-ant applicative and -ukar reciprocative. In the following century, attacks by the Sea Peoples brought a swift end to the last vestiges of the Hurrian language. The third possibility is for both these markers to occur see example 16 below.

Historical background of ancient Anatolia In history of Mesopotamia: This page was last edited on 4 Octoberat The anaphoric marker 7 is formally identical to the article and anchors the Suffixaufnahme suffixes 8 and hurran.

In the indicative this suffix is mandatory, but in all other moods it is optional.

Hurrian language – Wikipedia

By using this site, grammar agree to the Terms of Use grammar Privacy Policy. Another case, the so-called ‘e-case’, is very rare, and carries a genitive or allative meaning.

Verb forms can also take other enclitic suffixes; see ‘particles’ below. The so-called essive case can convey the meaning “as” and a condition, but also to express direction, the aim of hkrrian demand, the transition from one condition to another, the direct object in antipassive constructions where the transitive subject receives the absolutive case instead of the ergativeand, in the variety of Nuzialso the dative.

It can only be formed from transitive verbs, and it specifies an agent of the first person. Texts in Urartian date to a year period from the ninth century until shortly before BC. Hurrian has only a small amount of adverbs.